The surgical specialty that mainly concentrates on the diseases of the female and male urinary tracts along with male reproductive organs is known as urology. An urologist is required to study gynecology, pediatrics, internal medicine and other specialties as there could be many clinical problems associated. The urinary tract in women opens in vulva while the urinary system in men overlaps with the reproductive system. In both men and women, the reproductive and urinary tracts are very close to each other and any disorder in one can also affect the other. This surgical specialty (urology) combines management of surgical problems like the correction of congenital abnormalities, cancers and also correcting stress incontinence, as well as non-surgical problems like benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary tract infections. Urology also sometimes related to some medical fields such as gynecology, pediatric surgery, oncology, endocrinology, nephrology, gastroenterology and andrology.
It is primarily concerned with the surgical treatment of malignant genitourinary diseases such as adrenal glands, testicles, kidneys, cancer of the prostate, bladder, penis, testicles and ureters. An oncologist or a urologist manages the advance stage of genitourinary cancer that depends upon the cancer.
It is primarily concerned with different Urologic disorders in children such as congenital abnormalities, enuresis, cryptorchism, underdeveloped genitalia, vesicoureteral reflux and congenital abnormalities of the genito-urinary tract.
It is primarily concerned with urinary incontinence, overactive bladder and pelvic organ prolapsed. Proper knowledge of urodynamic skills along with female pelvic floor together is required for diagnosing and treating these disorders.
It is primarily concerned with the nervous system that affects the urinary system. Nerves, brain and spinal cord are very essential as they maintain the functions of the bladder. Parkinson’s disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis can disturb lower urinary tract and can also cause conditions like inability to urinate and urinary incontinence. Spina bifida which is a birth condition can also result in neurological dysfunction of the bladder control.
It is primarily concerned with the male reproductive system such as erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorders and male infertility. Andrology usually overlaps with endocrinology as male sexuality is majorly controlled by hormones. The implantation of penile prostheses, fertilization procedures and vasectomy reversals are the common surgeries included in this field.
The common urology procedures include –
- Bladder surgery
- Renal (Kidney) surgery
- Surgery to the penis
- Kidney removal (nephrectomy)
- Urethra surgery
- Surgery of the ureters such as removal of calculus in the ureters or ureterolithotomy
- Testicular surgery
- Removal of the prostate or prostatic surgery
- Pelvic lymph node dissection
When non-surgical treatments and medication are unable to relieve symptoms, then surgery is recommended for treating urologic condition. Some of the conditions are kidney or bladder cancer, prostate cancer, vesicoureteral reflux and ureteropelvic junction (UPJ). There are many less invasive surgical procedures are available for those people who are going through urologic surgery. Laparoscopy is the most common less invasive surgery. This surgery is performed by making several small incisions and it also makes use of long-handled surgical instruments along with a guided camera.
Robotic-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure is primarily performed for bladder cancer. Da Vinci surgical system is utilized in this procedure where the movements of a surgeon are imitated by a robotic arm in order to increase their precision. This is considered as the effective surgery for those patients who are suffering from bladder cancer. During the procedure, small incisions are made without affecting vital muscle tissue and nerve. This procedure results in shorter hospital stays and faster recovery time.
Robotic-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: This minimally invasive surgical procedure is performed for treating prostate cancer. This procedure involves the removal of the prostate for treating prostate cancer. The prostate gland is surgically removed with the help of few small incisions by using DaVinci surgical robot system.
Robotic-assisted Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty: This minimally-invasive surgical procedure is basically performed for repairing acquired or congenital scarring or narrowing where the ureter is attached with the kidney. This method is considered as an effective and safe method that also involves a short hospital stay and minimal incisions.
Robotic-assisted Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy: This minimally invasive surgical procedure is performed for removing small renal tumors and simultaneously it also preserves nearby kidney tissue. This procedure involves only a short stay at the hospital, much smaller incisions, less post-operative pain and quick revert to daily activities.